The most ancient structures of the Southwest region of the United States still standing are represented in buildings made from adobe used in homes and Southwest missions. The early settlers of the region constructed homes of adobe because the materials were plentiful and at hand. Due to the lack of wood or masonry material, adobe was the choice of early shelters. Today, we have discovered that this material is not only abundant but also adaptable to changing climate and temperatures.
With the advance of the railroad, other materials used in the East made their way to the Southwest region and changed the face of local architecture. Most of the homes at the time were constructed of adobe due mainly to its high availability and low cost. It became more associated with the lower class which family members participated in the manufacturing of bricks using their feet and wooden molds. They relied entirely on the earth to provide the materials and not on any external shipments. Modern times have shown a trend towards adobe construction not only on aesthetics but also on practicality.
There are those who consider adobe the material of the poor, but now the thinking by the rich has renewed interest in this ancient building process. In some places, such as Santa Fe, New Mexico, these homes may cost beginning at $100,000. Certainly adobe homes can be constructed much cheaper. The manufacturing of adobe brick has become an industrial process. The camp of owners falls into two categories, those who hire contractors and those who do their own construction.
What are the characteristics of Adobe?
Traditionally, adobe brick measures 10x14x4 inches. Ideally, the mixture contains 20% clay and 80% sand. These materials are mixed with water and acquire a more fluid state that allows it to be poured into wooden forms with the above dimensions. When the water evaporates, the brick becomes hard, and it is then removed from the form. It is stacked one upon the other like fallen dominoes. About 30 days later, the bricks become as strong as cement.
The use of straw is commonly considered an essential part of the adobe brick, however, contemporary bricks of adobe do not contain it. The use of straw is thought to impart rigidity to the brick and prevent it from cracking during the curing process. If, however, the proper proportion of sand to clay is used this should not occur.
“High Technology” Abode
The basic mixture of clay and sand in adobe has been altered using emulsified asphalt. This is the component used in road construction. This imparts to the adode a waterproof quality. This incorporation is not fully accepted since the outer wall will be covered by stucco (plaster). If the wall is an inner patio or garden then its use is justified. “Purists” are not accepting to this idea and prefer the natural quality of adobe brick. Using asphalt will release gases that may prove harmful to man or the environment but no long-term studies of its effect have been done.
Why use Adobe?
There are advantages and disadvantages associated with its use. From the homebuilder, the easy of use makes the material attractive. In its mud form, it is easy to cut and shape. Taking from the childhood experience, using mud seems to make for a pleasant experience.
Although it is fairly simple to construct ones own material, the cost remains at $2000 to $3000 for a modest structure. The difference is the cost of transportation of the material and or the cost using traditional or high tech brick.
The amount of required energy and associated pollutants of the manufacturing process relies mainly on the type of material. By comparison, adobe may require 2000 BTUs compared to traditional Eastern brick requiring 30,000 BTUs.
Because there are minimal transportation costs of material, this is ideally suited for the environmentalist. As for the Solar Enthusiast, this is the simplest way to create a thermal mass. To combine these two concepts it has become known as Solaradobe.
English version of “Building with Adobe” coming soon!
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